Monday, August 31, 2009

Interview with the authors of International Guidelines for Sexuality Education

In June, UNESCO published a draft version of a new publication titled International Guidelines for Sexuality Education: An evidence informed approach to effective sex, relationships and HIV/STI education. The draft appears to have been quite well received internationally, although it appears to have raised some negative responses in conservative circles in the United States.

While the principle authors of the study, Nanette Ecker and Doug Kirby are Americans, the report is surely targetted to those making policy with respect to sexuality education in developing nations. In order to properly understand the report, one must consider the needs in those countries.

Sexual activity begins early quite often in developing countries, and often it is coerced. One recent study reports:
Using nationally representative surveys from 12-19 year old girls in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda collected in 2004, we examine the prevalence of sexual coercion at sexual debut among unmarried girls and its correlates. In Malawi, 38 percent of girls said that they were “not willing at all” at their first sexual experience followed by Ghana at 30 percent, Uganda at 23 percent and Burkina Faso at 15 percent. In-depth interviews collected in 2003 with the same demographic shows that there are four primary types of sexual coercion: forced sex; pressure through money or gifts; flattery, pestering, and threatening to have sex with other girls; and passive acceptance.
According to UNAIDS, there are some 2.7 million new cases of HIV infection per year. About half occur in women, and there are an estimated 50 million women in Asia at risk of contracting HIV infection from the intimate partners. 370,000 of the new infections occur in children under the age of 15. In the United States we think of HIV as a disease that people can live with for a considerable period of time, albeit taking medication under physician care with the possiblity of side effects; in 2007, however, 2 million people died of AIDS.

The Office of Victims of Crime estimates that of the 600,000-800,000 people trafficked across international borders each year, 70 percent are female and 50 percent are children. Indeed, it is estimated that a million children are involved in the international sex trade. The majority of these victims are forced into the commercial sex trade. According to the UNESCO Trafficing Project, in Thailand, repeated surveys indicate that from one-third to one-half of all prostitutes started prostitution as children.

According to the 2009 World Report on Children, every year, more than half a million women die as a result of pregnancy or childbirth complications, including about 70,000 girls and young women aged 15 to 19. Women in the world's least developed countries are 300 times more likely to die in childbirth or from pregnancy-related complications than women in developed countries; a child born in a developing country is almost 14 times more likely to die during the first month of life than a child born in a developed one.

It would be criminal were educational policy makers in the countries where these problems are most accute not to consider sexuality education in the schools. Moreover, they must consider sexuality education at ages that appear quite young to most Americans.

UNESCO's 2009 EFA Global Monitoring Report states that 75 million children of primary school age are not in school, including just under one-third of the relevant age group in sub-Saharan Africa.
Girls are still neglected in education. Gender enrolment gaps remain large across much of South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Disadvantages based on language, race, ethnicity and rural-urban differences also remain deeply entrenched. In Senegal, children in urban areas are twice as likely as those in rural areas to be in school.
In order to help policy makers, the authors of this report have summarized results from 87 international research studies (29 from developing countries) as well as input from experts in specialized NGOs and other UN agencies. Of course it is left to the policy makers to utilize the information to
derive age and culturally appropriate standards for their own schools.

Dr Doug Kirby is a Senior Research Scientist at Education, Training and Research Associates and Nanette Ecker is the former director of International Education and Training at the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS).

A Note on the History of the Concept of Culture in UNESCO

Julie Reeves points out in her book, Culture and international relations: narratives, natives, and tourists, that the concept of culture change from the humanist to the anthropological during the 20th century, and this shift had profound implications in international relations.

The Humanist Definition

Wikipedia provides the following that characterizes the humanist concept of culture:
When the concept first emerged in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe, it connoted a process of cultivation or improvement, as in agriculture or horticulture. In the nineteenth century, it came to refer first to the betterment or refinement of the individual, especially through education, and then to the fulfillment of national aspirations or ideals.
To further emphasize the point, consider these two quotations from Mathew Arnold in the 18th century:
  • Culture is properly described as the love of perfection; it is a study of perfection.
  • Culture is to know the best that has been said and thought in the world.
In the creation of UNESCO, which came in the immediate aftermath of the first use of the atomic bomb, it was explicitly argued that it was important to have a forum in which science could be informed by the humanities, that is that Science and Culture should both be included in the charter of UNESCO.

The Constitution of UNESCO further adds to the evidence that this was the concept of "culture" used by is founders. Consider this declaration from the preamble:
That the wide diffusion of culture, and the education of humanity for justice and liberty and peace are indispensable to the dignity of man and constitute a sacred duty which all the nations must fulfil in a spirit of mutual assistance and concern;
Or this from Article I: Purposes and functions:
To realize this purpose the Organization will:......Give fresh impulse to popular education and to the spread of culture;
  • By collaborating with Members, at their request, in the development of educational activities;
  • By instituting collaboration among the nations to advance the ideal of equality of educational opportunity without regard to race, sex or any distinctions, economic or social;
  • By suggesting educational methods best suited to prepare the children of the world for the responsibilities of freedom.
The suggestion that culture be defused must be understood in terms of a diffusion of the best that has been said and thought in the world to the advantage of all peoples.

Thus in the early years of UNESCO the emphasis of the culture program included work on international copyright instruments, museums, the protection of tangible items of cultural heritage, and importantly the preservation of Abu Simbel.

The Anthropological Definition

In 1998, Don Adams in his report on UNESCO's World Conference on Cultural Policies for Development noted:
A continuing emphasis on broadening the scope of cultural policy to include "the whole complex of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features that characterize a society or social group.... not only the arts and letters, but also modes of life, the fundamental rights of the human being, value systems, traditions and beliefs"
Reflected in that broadening of the concept of "culture" was new emphasis on such topics as respect for cultural diversity, protection of the expression of that cultural diversity, protection of intangible cultural heritage from cultures once the subject of prejudice, and protection of endangered languages.

There were of course real world changes taking place during the past six decades in parallel with the changes in the meaning of "cultural". Globalization and the development of the global information infrastructure greatly increased the interaction of peoples with their differing cultures. Decolonization occurred and post colonial states grew in influence in the international scene, including in UNESCO's governing bodies. UNESCO ceased to be a club of a small number of countries, including colonial powers infused with the belief in the superiority of their own high cultures, and became a more egalitarian organization of states, the majority of which seeking to protect their national cultures. Indeed, the UNESCO founding nations saw and expansion of democracy and became more egalitarian.

In the 1990's UNESCO became involved in efforts focusing on culture and development. That work resulted in a new and important conceptualization of development. It recognized that culture is not simply a factor to be taken into account in planning for economic and social development, but the context in which all development takes place, and indeed the determinant of the values of a people which determine the directions that that people seeks from development.

Implications for the Future

As the concept of culture has expanded, UNESCO has added new aspects to its cultural program but has continued to recognize the importance of its key programs linked to the humanistic definition. It continues to expand its network of World Heritage sites, has just implemented a World Digital Library, and its standard setting instruments for the protection of tangible cultural heritage in times of war are especially important.

A new UNESCO Director General is to be elected soon, and that person will face the challenge of leading UNESCO's cultural program and integrating it with UNESCO's other programs. We can expect the concept of culture to continue it evolution, and we can expect UNESCO to continue to be constrained by both human and financial resources. One hopes that the selection process will assure that the new Director General fully understands the way that the concept of culture has expanded since the foundation of UNESCO, the way in which the UNESCO program had accommodated and indeed contributed to that evolution, and have the flexibility to lead in the continuing evolution of concept and program.

John Daly
(The ideas in this posting are those of the author alone, and do not necessarily represent those of Americans for UNESCO.)

Wednesday, August 26, 2009

We Mourn the Passing of Senator Edward M. Kennedy

We join millions of people around the world in mourning the passing of Senator Ted Kennedy. While Senator Kennedy is being remembered for his many achievements on behalf of the poor, the downtrodden and the disenfranchised in the United States, he is also being recalled as a longtime champion and leader in advocating for the poor and for those without a voice in other countries.

Senator Kennedy led the effort to secure for refugees and immigrants the right to a life with dignity while also fighting for greater resources for those around the world who suffer in poverty and with sickness. He was a strong supporter of the United Nations and its mission. And while Senator Kennedy was beloved in this country, he will also be sorely missed by people far outside our borders, especially those who will no longer have his voice to rely on for their behalf.

Ivonne Baki Receives Award

It has been announced that Ivonne Baki, candidate for UNESCO Director General, is one of 12 people selected to receive the Americas Award for Public Service in 2009. The award recognizes government officials for contributions to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The award is made by CIFAL Atlanta, a joint initiative between UNITAR and the City of Atlanta.

Tuesday, August 25, 2009

Scientists Hope To Scan, Preserve World Heritage Sites

According to David Gura on NPR's News, scientists are beginning a revolutionary project to record three-dimensional models of world heritage sites project . The project is led by Cyart, an American firm with the collaboration of British scientists, and will begin with Mr. Rushmore.

Controversy About the Candidacy of Farouk Hosny for UNESCO Director General

Source: :"Very, Very Lost in Translation," by Raymond Stock, Foreign Policy, August 24, 2009.

The UNESCO Executive Board is to meet in September to consider the eight active candidates who have been nominated for the post of Director General of UNESCO. It is expected that their selection will be endorsed by the General Conference in October, and the new Director General is to take office in November. One candidate, Farouk Hosny, has proven to be especially controversial. He has been campaigning for the position for two years, and was considered the early leader, but the race has more recently been seen as open.

This new article in the influential journal, Foreign Policy, is very negative with respect to Farouk Hosny. I quote extensively:
To say that Farouk Hosni doesn't much like Israel is putting it lightly. According to the Anti-Defamation League, he has called it "inhuman," and "an aggressive, racist, and arrogant culture, based on robbing other people's rights and the denial of such rights." He has accused Jews of "infiltrating" world media. And in May 2008, Hosni outdid even himself, telling the Egyptian parliament that he would "burn right in front of you" any Israeli books found in the country's libraries......

Should Hosni's bid to be head of UNESCO succeed, as is likely, it could obscure the truly virulent prejudice that passes for cultural understanding among the Egyptian intelligentsia. Despite his apology for offering to burn books, Hosni told the Egyptian station Dream TV in July that he will oppose normalization with Israel until "two states exist" and the "Palestinian people get their right." And whatever the United Nations decides in the end, his gut feelings about Israel and the Jews are not likely to change.
This follows a widely read open letter by Bernard-Henri Levy, Ellie Wiesel and Claude Lanzman titled "UNESCO: The Shame of a Disaster Foretold." It also focuses on anti-Israeli and anti-Jewish statements by Hosny.

You might also find this exchange of interest:
Americans for UNESCO has neither endorsed nor opposed any of the eight candidates for UNESCO Director General. This posting should not be so construed, but rather seeks to share two influential publications on the race.

For more information on the election and the candidates, try:

Sunday, August 23, 2009

Green World Heritage: The Condé Nast Traveler Challenge

Part of the Petra World Heritage Site

IMAGINE you are the Minister of Tourism responsible for one of the World Heritage sites. What green technologies — real and futuristic — do you need to protect and preserve your site for future generations? What kinds of conservation projects can you dream up to keep one or all of these destinations intact forever?

This Conde Nash international challenge seeks the best green solutions to preserve World Heritage sites. We hope to discover new technologies and approaches, from green energy to sustainable materials that protect, sustain, and enhance the unique characteristics of these cherished locations.

International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and of its Abolition:

23 August: International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and of its Abolition

The night of 22 to 23 August 1791, in Santo Domingo (today Haiti and the Dominican Republic) saw the beginning of the uprising that would play a crucial role in the abolition of the transatlantic slave trade.

The International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition is intended to inscribe the tragedy of the slave trade in the memory of all peoples.

Thursday, August 20, 2009

International Literacy Day, 8 September

On International Literacy Day each year, UNESCO reminds the international community of the status of literacy and adult learning globally.

Despite many and varied efforts, literacy remains an elusive target: some 776 million adults lack minimum literacy skills which means that one in five adults is still not literate; 75 million children are out-of-school and many more attend irregularly or drop out.

Wednesday, August 19, 2009

In Memorium: Torsten Husen

Professor Torsten Husén passed away in Stockholm, Sweden, on 2 July 2009.

Born in 1916, Torsten made an indelible mark on the field of education both in his native Sweden and internationally. He is especially known for:
  • his work on the longitudinal study of a cohort of pupils born in Malmö in 1928,
  • the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), of which he was Chairman from 1962 to 1978, and
  • the monumental International Encyclopedia of Education which he co-edited with T. Neville Postlethwaite and which appeared in 10 volumes in its first edition and 12 volumes in its second edition.
A devoted and eminent scholar of cross-national comparison in education, Husén launched the First International Mathematics Study.

A memorial event will be held at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm on September 1.

I recommend this website devoted to Professor Husen.

Visit of Director General to the United States

UNESCO Director General Koïchiro Matsuura visited the United States in June, During that visit he met with senior American officials to discuss new avenues for collaboration in the fields of education, culture and science.

I quote from UNESCO's report of the visit:
In his meeting with US Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan, the Director-General welcomed the emphasis the new administration was giving to education, both domestically, by making it a major pillar of the federal stimulus package, and internationally, with President Obama’s campaign pledge to significantly boost financing for basic education. Explaining that achieving basic Education for All (EFA) was UNESCO’s first priority, Mr Matsuura expressed his hope that UNESCO would continue to work closely with the US in the field of literacy, while mentioning teacher training and HIV&AIDS prevention as potential areas for new cooperation.

The Director-General also signalled the importance of US engagement in higher education. He stated that burgeoning student demand for higher education had created the need for innovative and flexible responses, noting that the American experience – such as community colleges – could provide models for other countries, in particular in the developing world.......

Turning to culture, the Director-General welcomed the inclusion of two new US candidates on the tentative list of world heritage sites. “This is a sign that the new administration is seriously interested in heritage preservation”, he stated. Mr Matsuura urged the US to pay equal attention to the safeguarding of living heritage, encouraging the Government to ratify the 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. “The preservation of tangible and intangible heritage must go hand in hand”, the Director-General underscored.
Read more:

Mesa Verde National Park

Mesa Verde Cliff Palace

There is a very nice blog posting about a recent visit to Mesa Verde, a UNESCO World Heritage site as well as an American National Park. I too have visited Mesa Verde and it is well worth the trip, with amazing ruins of ancient villages in a spectacular setting, which has been made accessible and indeed offers comfortable facilities.

Monday, August 17, 2009


UNESCO's proudest moments have come less from the assertion of normative generalisations as from the technically more challenging task of devising policy coherence and direction.
Phillip W Jones

Sunday, August 16, 2009

On Work Tour in the West, Obama Visits Old Faithful

Source: The New York Times

It is wonderful to see the President of the United States publicly supporting our greatest World Heritage site!

Saturday, August 15, 2009

Cahokia: Ancient America's Great City on the Mississippi

This new book by Timothy Pauketat describes the culture of the Mississippian people who built the ceremonial center which we now call the Cahocial Mounds. The author, a professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is an anthtopoligist who has published earlier books on the culture of Cahokia.

The Cahokia Mounds were declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1982. Huge constructions built by the inhabitants of an urban complex estimated to have had a population of 40,000 people a thousand years ago, the site amply justifies World Heritage status.

I ask my classes each year whether they know of the site, and fewer than ten percent of my Americans graduate students remember having heard of this, one of only 20 world heritage sites in the United States. Thus a new and popular book on the site and its interpretation is most welcome.

Read the review of the book in the Chicago Tribune.

Friday, August 14, 2009

From Remarks by Assistant Secretary of State Esther Brimmer

"We were pleased and deeply honored to win a seat on the Human Rights Council itself, and we pledge to be strong advocates of the principles that President Obama outlined yesterday.

"Those principles which are clearly articulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights are also rooted in ideals that we share in the United States and that we continue to try to realize. Sometimes painfully. Sometimes with difficulty. But succeeding generations of Americans have addressed these issues.

"We realize, as the phrase is used, that it’s been a long time coming. Some of the issues we’ve discussed today reveal the long distance we still have to travel before we can rest. While the U.S. treasures its freedoms, embraces its rich diversity and celebrates its history of struggle and progress, we know the struggle continues.

"In joining the Human Rights Council we accept a role in reshaping and help direct the Council, along with other members. We also know that it’s been too often distracted by attention to a single conflict and too often has not been able to address all the issues of genuine international human rights concern."

Request for Proposals: Design Approach Toolkit

UNESCO invites Sealed Proposals for the development of a toolkit elaborating a design approach in response to HIV and AIDS to be provided to UNESCO Headquarters for the Culture Sector's Culture, HIV and AIDS program.

UNESCO's Culture, HIV and AIDS program works to support HIV and AIDS interventions and strategies which are grounded in and tailored to the social and cultural specificities of the target populations. The program advocates for 'culturally appropriate' approaches in response to the epidemic and, in acknowledgment of the severe limitations of prescribing a singular formula, stresses the need for multiple, context-specific behavioural and structural interventions.

Proposals should be delivered no later than 07 September 2009

Thursday, August 13, 2009

David Killion Sworn In as U.S. Ambassador to UNESCO

David Killion was sworn in yesterday as the new American Ambassador and Permanent Representative to UNESCO. The oath to support the Constitution of the United States was administered by the Under Secretary of State. Ambassador Killion acknowledged the support of his wife, who coincidentally he met first in Paris, and of his mother, a teacher, and his father, a chemist. His acceptance speech was a reprise of the message he provided to the Congress at his confirmation hearing.

The ceremony was held in the Benjamin Franklin Room of the State Department. It seems fitting that the Ambassador to UNESCO was sworn in in a room named after Franklin, who was among other things America's first great scientist, a writer whose autobiography and sayings are still read today, the founding President of the Academy which eventually became the University of Pennsylvania, the founder of the first public lending library in America, one of America's most accomplished and successful diplomats who loved Paris (where UNESCO is headquartered), a newspaper publisher and generally a man who exemplified in his lifetime the spirit of UNESCO.

Incidentally, the diplomatic rooms of the State Department are beautiful, furnished with American antiques from the 18th century of great beauty and value.

The ceremony was well attended, with perhaps 100 people in the audience. As I waited in line to get through the security screening needed to enter the State Department I had the pleasure of meeting Ivonne Baki, a candidate for Director General of UNESCO, who was directly in front of me. I also had the pleasure of chatting with the couple standing directly behind me, Bob Kahn (one of the inventors of the Internet) and his wife, Patrice Lyons (one of the members of the Board of Directors of Americans for UNESCO). I suspect that many of the others who attended the ceremony were comparably distinguished.

Monday, August 10, 2009

World Heritage in Hoi An

August 5th, 2009 by Smithsonian Journeys

Because of shifting trade routes, the old town of Hoi An in the South Central coast of Vietnam is a well-preserved example of a traditional trading town during the 15th to the 19th centuries. The shift of the trade routes from Hoi An to Da Nang resulted in the virtual abandonment of the town—leaving it in much the same state as it was nearly 200 years ago. Declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999, the small town on the coast of the South China Sea has seen an increase in the number of tourists and backpackers in recent years.

Some New UNESCO Publications on Education

Promoting participation: community contributions to education in conflict situations

Donors' engagement: supporting education in fragile and conflict-affected states

Situation analysis of basic education, vocational education and development of sustainable livelihoods in drug treatment and rehabilitation centres of India

Surviving a tsunami: lessons from Aceh and Southern Java, Indonesia

Family literacy: experiences from Africa and around the world

Saturday, August 08, 2009

UNESCO Panel Criticizes Teotihuacan Plan

The UNESCO World Heritage Committee, which monitors historical and natural heritage sites around the globe.
expressed concern that "the lack of a management plan appears to have allowed developments to take place, which have had a negative impact on" on the Teotihuacan site near Mexico City......

It also asked Mexico to draw up a management plan and form a working group of local, state and federal officials to increase co-ordination for protecting the site.
Editorial comment: Once seen, never forgotten, Teotihuacan is truly a site of such trasncendent importance that it should be protected as an important part of the heritage of mankind. Thank goodness that the World Heritage Center provides a means by which an independent and unbiased panel can encourage the Mexican nation to preserve the site. JAD

Wednesday, August 05, 2009

The United State Government Owes UNESCO a Lot of Money!

One of the problems faced by UNESCO is that its member nations do not make their assessed contributions to the Organization on time. The United States is the worst offender, and the problem is compounded by the fact that the United States as the world's richest country has the largest assessed contributions.

A document prepared for the September meeting of UNESCO's Executive Board states:
Since 80% of the total of contributions assessed for 2009 was payable by the 12 largest contributor Member States, the dates when these major contributions are received are of crucial importance for the Organization’s cash situation. The first table gives summarized information on the contributions of these 12 Member States as at 30 June 2009:

The assessed contributions for 2009 are $316 million, and were due in January. Thus the U.S. arrears represent a considerable portion of the funding of the organization, and must been seen as causing considerable difficulties in management and performance.

A Factoid from the History of U.S. Involvement with UNESCO

Myrna Loy, the actress who won an Academy Award for her lifetime career achievement in films, became a member of the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO in 1948, the first Hollywood celebrity to do so.

She was married from 1950 ro 1961 to Howland H. Sargeant, the only American to serve as Chairman of the General Conference of UNESCO (6th Session, 1951).

Time magazine reported at time of the General Conference:
A Republican charge that Cinemactress Myrna Loy and her new State Department husband Howland H. Sargeant had enjoyed a Paris honeymoon at government expense is just not so, declared Georgia's Democratic Congressman Prince Preston Jr. The bridegroom did indeed travel on government funds because he was on an official mission; the honeymoon was coincidental and he paid his wife's bills. Besides, Preston added, since conferences frequently started at 8 a.m. and lasted until 2 a.m., "Paris turned out to be a mighty poor place to spend a honeymoon."
Sargeant, a Rhodes Scholar, was a career diplomat who became Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs before leaving government to run Radio Liberation, which broadcast to the Soviet Union.

Tuesday, August 04, 2009

International Day of the World's Indigenous People

Each year August 9th is dedicated to celebration of the International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples, an event proclaimed by the United Nations.

Links to Some Relevant sites

The United Nation's International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples was commemorated on Wednesday 9 August 2006. Video: Esras Films and the European Commission

Hawaii’s World Heritage Festival

6th Annual Hawaii's World Heritage Festival
Saturday • August 15, 2009 • 10 a.m.- 3 p.m.
Mo`oheau Bandstand & Park, Downtown Hilo

The "World Heritage Sites" challenge -- the winners

Check out the winners of a contest for the best photos of World Heritage Sites (on Flickr).

"UNESCO Officials to Evaluate Papahanaumokuakea"

KGMB 9 in Hawaii reports that the Northwest Hawaiian Islands (also known as Papahanaumokuakea), a federally protected marine monument, may become a world heritage site. "National park service officials say the nomination was an easy pick."

Our connection to Papahanaumokuakea

Monday, August 03, 2009

Social Networks Devoted to UNESCO & Links related to the Election of the New DG

One of the members of the Board of Directors of Americans for UNESCO and a contributor to this blog, John Daly, is also a manager of the UNESCO's Friends group on LinkedIn. That group was originally created by a UNESCO staff member. It has now reached nearly 500 members, including a candidate for the post of Director General of UNESCO, some UNESCO staff, and a number of diplomatic experts on the organization as well as a cross section of people from many countries interested in UNESCO.

Other social networks that deal with UNESCO include:
The Americans for UNESCO Twitter feed now has more than 1,500 followers, and has made more than 2,000 tweets.

Of special interest may be two of his recent contributions to the information on the election of the new Director General of UNESCO:

Sunday, August 02, 2009

Education For All: Class of 2015

UNESCO-Qatar Agreement to Support Education in Crisis Affected Areas

© UNESCO/M. Ravassard

On 8 July 2009, the Director-General of UNESCO, Mr Koïchiro Matsuura, signed at the Organization’s Headquarters a Framework Agreement on education in crisis affected areas with Dr Abudullah Al Kubaissi, Executive Director of the Office of Her Highness Sheikha Mozah Bint Nasser Al-Missned, First Lady of Qatar and UNESCO Special Envoy for Basic and Higher Education. More.

"The Challenge of Establishing World-Class Universities"

This figure illustrates the central point in Jamil Salmi's paper which was published by UNESCO on the challenges faced by communities that seek to establish a world class university. While there are differences among the lists of the best universities in the world, it seems to be generally agreed that there are fewer than 100 institutions in the absolutely top rank that combine a strong research program, a strong program training PhDs and the normal functions of the tens of thousands of institutions of higher education.